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2013 Georgia Tobacco Grower's Guide

General Information

Scroll through the Table of Contents below for links to the cover and the major sections of the 2013 Georgia Tobacco Grower's Guide. Or, use the links at right to jump to a specific section of the guide. All files are in PDF file format.

For the complete guide, download this PDF file.

Table of Contents

Cover (front and back)

Tobacco Outlook and Budgets

  • Introduction to the 2013 Georgia Tobacco Budgets
    • Bulk Barn, Hand Harvested Budget
    • Bulk Barn, Machine Harvested Budget
  • Estimated Labor and Machinery Costs per Acre - Hand Harvest - 2013
  • Estimated Labor and Machinery Costs per Acre - Mechanical Harvest - 2013
  • Returns Above Variable Costs for Hand Harvested
    • Flue Cured Tobacco, Various Yields and Contract Prices - 2013
  • Returns Above Variable Costs for Mechanical Harvested
    • Flue Cured Tobacco, Various Yields and Contract Prices - 2013
  • Farm Labor Management
  • Employee or Independent Contractor
  • Employer Responsibilities
  • Social Security and Medicare Taxes
  • Georgia New Hire Reporting Program
  • Employment Taxes and Deposits
  • Georgia Income Tax
  • Unemployment Taxes
  • Migrant and Seasonal Labor
  • H-2A Program Workers

2014 Tobacco Variety Information

  • New Varieties for 2014
  • Variety Selection
  • 2013 Official Flue-Cured Tobacco Variety Evaluation
  • Official Flue-Cured Variety Test - 2013 Yield, Value Indices, Quality and Agronomic Characteristics of Released Varieties
  • Comparison of Certain Characteristics for Released Varieties Evaluation in the 2013 Official Flue-Cured Tobacco Variety Test
  • Comparison of Certain Characteristics for Varieties Evaluated in the 2013 Regional Variety Farm Test
  • Released Variety Demonstration - Dicks Farm, Columbia Co., FL

2013 Tobacco Variety Information

  • New Varieties for 2013
  • Variety Selection
  • 2012 Official Flue-Cured Tobacco Variety Evaluation
  • Official Flue-Cured Variety Test - 2010 Yield, Value Indices, Quality and Agronomic Characteristics of Released Varieties
  • Comparison of Certain Characteristics for Released Varieties Evaluation in the 2012 Official Flue-Cured Tobacco Variety Test
  • Comparison of Certain Characteristics for Varieties Evaluated in the 2012 Regional Variety Farm Test
  • Disease Resistance of Selected Released Tobacco Varieties
  • Pedigree, Year of Release and Sponsor of Selected Varieties
  • Released Varieties 2012, Dicks Farm, Columbia County, Florida

Production of Bare Root Tobacco Transplants

  • Production Program for Bare Root Transplants
  • Plant Bed Problems
    • Drainage
    • Cover Management
    • Irrigation
  • Plant Bed Fertilization
    • Nitrogen Source
    • Yellow Plants
  • Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)
  • Plant Bed Fumigation and Disease Control
  • Plant Bed Insect Control
    • Plant Bed Insect Control Chemicals
  • Plant Bed Mechanization
    • Bed Preparation
    • Planter or Seeder
    • Seed Spacing
    • Clipping Tobacco Plant Beds
    • Field Performance of Clipped Plants
    • Clipping Procedure
    • Harvesting
    • Bed Clipping Practices in Relation to Seedling Diseases

Transplant Production in the Float System

  • Consider the Materials
  • Analyze the Water Source and Manage Alkalinity
  • Select a High-Quality Growing Medium
  • Consider Tray Design
  • Promote Uniform Emergence
    • Fill and Seed Trays Uniformly
    • Manage Spiral Rooting
    • Causes of Spiral Rooting
    • Primed Seeds
    • Provide a Warm Temperature
    • Promote Uniform Growth
    • Monitor and Manage Fertilizer Salts in the Growing Medium
    • Fertilize Properly
      • Monitoring Waterbed Fertility Levels
      • Nitrogen
        • Effect of Urea Concentration in the Fertilizer on Seedling Stem Length, Fresh Weight and Dry Weight, 1994
    • Phosphorus
    • Fertilizer Effects on Waterbed pH
    • Sulfur
    • Boron
    • Organic Fertilization
    • Calculation of Water Volume
    • Calculating Parts Per Million
  • Clip Properly
  • Greenhouse Disease Control
  • Greenhouse Insect Control
    • Cultural Controls
    • Chemical Control
    • Transplant Water Fertilizers
  • Determining Plant Number Per Acre


  • Nutrient Uptake by Tobacco
  • Soil Testing
  • Interpreting Soil Test Recommendations
  • Phosphorus and Potassium Recommendations Based on Soil Test Ratings
  • Liming (pH, Calcium and Magnesium)
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Base Nitrogen Rate
  • Recommended Base Nitrogen Rates for Tobacco Based on Topsoil Depth
  • Leaching Adjustments
    • Nitrogen Adjustments for Leaching Losses
  • Phosphorus and Potassium
  • Secondary Nutrients
  • Micronutrients
  • Timing
  • Starters
  • 2006 Bowen Farm Transplant Water-Fertilizer/Starter Test

Fertilizer Application Calibration

  • Calibration for Application of Dry Fertilizer
  • Band Application
  • Calibration Distances for Various Row and Outlet Spacings or Band Widths

Irrigating Tobacco

  • Benefits/Risks of Irrigation
  • Tobacco Growth Stages and Water Needs
  • Determining When to Irrigate
    • Water Holding Capacity
    • Water Loss and Use
  • Determining How Much Water to Apply
    • Infiltration Rate of Soils
    • Irrigation Scheduling
  • Water Quality
    • Disease
    • Salts in Irrigation Water
  • Other Production Practices in Relation to Irrigation
  • Irrigation Equipment
  • Drip Irrigation
  • Moisture Use by Tobacco
  • Proper Use of Tensiometers

Weed Management

  • Knowledge of the Pest
  • Crop Rotation Practices
  • Control Methods
    • Tillage and Cultivation
    • Chemical
  • Tobacco Weed Control Alternatives
  • Tobacco Weed Response to Herbicides

Tobacco Disease Control

  • Crop Rotation
  • Nitrogen Management
  • Plant Spacing
  • Early Stalk and Root Destruction
  • Varieties
  • Common Tobacco Diseases and Various Control Practices
    • Blue Mold
      • Blue Mold Control
  • Black Shank
    • Use Rotation
    • Chemical Control of Black Shank
    • Foliar Applications of Ridomil Gold/Ultra Flourish for Black Shank Control are Illegal and Useless
    • Use Resistant Varieties
      • Back-up Any Resistant Variety with a Sound Mefenoxam Program
  • Brown Spot
  • Fusarium Wilt
  • Soreshin
  • Target Spot
  • Angular Leafspot
  • Granville (Bacterial) Wilt
  • Hollow Stalk (soft rot, barn rot)
  • Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) and Potato Virus Y (PVY)
  • Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)
    • Spotted Wilt Management
    • Transplant Date
    • Admire 2F/Platinum (T-Moxx 25C)
    • Application of Admire (Imidacloprid) in Plant House
    • Application of Admire (Imidacloprid) in Transplant Water
    • Actigard 50WG
    • Acquiring a Label for Actigard 50WG Use Control of TSWV with an Actigard/Admire
    • Imidacloprid) Program TSWV Management Plan for Tobacco

Root-Knot Nematode

  • Crop Rotation
  • Nematode Sampling
  • Root Examination
  • Root-Knot Nematode Species Identification
  • Root-Knot Nematode Chemical Control
  • Fumigant Nematicides
  • Resistant Varieties

Soil Fumigation Equipment

  • Compatible Materials
  • Suppliers of Equipment
  • Calibration and Orifice Selection
  • Maintaining Equipment

Insects on Tobacco

  • Soil Insects
    • Wireworms
    • Mole Crickets
    • Cutworms
  • Control of Soil Insects in Tobacco Prior to Transplanting
  • Control of Soil Insects in Tobacco at Transplanting
  • Tobacco Insect Management Program
    • Scouting the Field
    • Taking Samples
    • Inspecting Plants
    • Treatment Thresholds for Various Insects
  • Major Foliage Feeding Insects of Tobacco
    • Tobacco Budworms
    • Hornworms
    • Aphids
    • Flea Beetles
    • Tobacco Splitworms
    • Efficacy of Two New Insecticides: Coragen and Durivo for control of Tobacco Budworm
  • Control of Foliar Insects on Field Tobacco

Premature Flowering Management

Topping and Chemical Sucker Control Programs for Georgia

  • Production of Tops and Suckers
  • Benefits of Topping and Suckering
  • Topping
  • Topping Height
  • Topping Time and Yield
  • Chemical Topping
  • Topping Plants Under Stress
  • Chemical Sucker Control
    • Contacts
    • Systemics
    • Contact-Localized-Systemics
  • Topping and Chemical Sucker Control Programs
  • Minimize MH Residues
  • Points to Aid in Minimizing MH Residue
  • Mean MH Residues for Flue-Cured Tobacco by Belt and Year
  • 2012 Regional Tobacco Growth Regulator Test, Effects of Advanced Growth Regulating Material on Sucker Growth, Cured Leaf Yields, and Value of Flue-Cured Tobacco
  • Tobacco Sucker Control Chemicals
  • Yellowing Agent for Flue-Cured Tobacco

Applying Contacts and Systemics for Sucker Control

  • Suggested Spray Nozzles for Application of Contacts and Systemics

Calibration Method for Hydraulic Boom and Band Sprayers and Other Liquid Applicators

  • Calibration for Application of Herbicide, Insecticides, Nematicides, Fungicides, or Liquid Fertilizers
  • Calibration Distances for Various Row Spacings or Band Widths
  • Calculating Band Application Volume
  • Calculating Formulation Requirements for Active Ingredient Rates

Harvesting and Curing Equipment Maintenance

  • Harvesters
  • Curing Barn
  • Loading Doors
  • Foundation
  • Curing Chamber and Furnace Room Areas
  • Insulation

Harvesting and Curing

  • Flue-Cured Stalk Positions
  • Harvest Only Mature, Ripe Leaves
  • When to Harvest
  • Container Loading
  • Guide for Bulk Curing
    • Starting Up
    • Yellowing
    • Wilting
    • Leaf Drying
    • Stem Drying
  • Bulk Curing Schedule for Normal, Ripe Tobacco

Deviations in Cured Tobacco

  • Immature and Slick
  • Green
  • Sponged
  • Toady
  • Moisture Run Back
  • Barn Scald
  • Swelled Stem

Energy Efficient Curing Practices Ordering Tobacco

Number of Hollow Cone Nozzles Required to Order a Bulk Barn of Tobacco

Retrofitting Tobacco Curing Barns

  • Older Barns
  • Making Your Own Retrofit
  • Considerations for Selecting the Right Retrofit for Your Barns
    • Fuel Type
    • Heat Exchanger Composition
    • Airflow
    • Heating System Efficiency
    • Energy Efficiency of the Burner
    • Energy Efficiency of the Heat Exchanger
    • Curing Efficiency
  • Careful Installation is Important
  • Curing Problems
  • Detecting Heat Exchanger Leaks
  • How Do I Find Cracks?

Storing Tobacco to Maintain Quality

  • Storage
  • Insects
  • Control of Insects in Stored Tobacco

Safe Handling of Pesticides

  • Transportation
  • Storage
  • Mixing and Loading
  • Application

Pesticide Containers and Disposal

  • Prohibited
  • Container Disposal
  • Pressure Rinse
  • Triple Rinse Method
  • Bag Disposal
  • Disposal of Unused Mixtures
  • Cleaning out Sprayer Tanks, Lines and Nozzles
  • Warning
  • Recycling Empty Containers

Pesticide Record keeping Requirements

  • Restricted Use Pesticide Record keeping Form

Farm Machinery Safety


Worker Protection Standards for Agricultural Pesticides used in Tobacco Production


US Tobacco GAP Program


Estimated Acres Planted in Georgia