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Entomology: UGA Honey Bee Program: Bees, Beekeeping, and Pollination

Bee Conservation in the Southeast

Update of circular 1164 of the Cooperative Extension Service of The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and cooperating counties of the state of Georgia, July, 1998.

Keith S. Delaplane
, Professor, Dept. Entomology,
University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA

Why Conserve Bees?

Bees visit flowers to collect pollen and nectar as food, and as they do this they transfer pollen from flower to flower in a process called pollination.  Pollination helps seeds and fruits to develop.  Many row crops and garden crops require bee pollination.  Good pollination makes higher yields, larger fruit, faster ripening fruit, and better tasting fruit.

When most people think of Abees@ they are thinking about the familiar honey bee, Apis mellifera.  This remarkable insect is the source for honey, beeswax, and a variety of other health and nutritional products. As important as these products are, their value pales in comparison to the value of honey bees as crop pollinators.  Honey bees are responsible for $2-9 billion added value to American food production annually [i], [ii].  They can live in colonies managed by beekeepers, and they can live as wild colonies in nature.  Both managed and wild honey bees are valuable pollinators.

American crop growers and home gardeners are concerned about declining numbers of wild honey bees.  There is evidence for this decline from scientific surveys [iii], [iv].  Wild honey bees are dying because of two exotic parasites that were introduced into North America in the 1980sCthe tracheal mite and varroa mite.  Managed honey bees survive reasonably well because they are routinely treated with miticides to control these parasites.  However, treatment is expensive and even treated bees sometimes die.  The situation is worse for wild honey bees because they are never treated.

Non-honey bees are also threatened.  These include wild bumble bees and solitary bees that nest in thick grass, soil, wood, or tunnels in wood.  These different types, or species, of bees are easily overlooked because they are rarely kept in hives, do not make surplus honey, and do not form large colonies.  Their nesting sites and food plants are frequently destroyed by human activities.

As bees of all kinds decline, that leaves behind a pollination vacuum.  And less pollination means lower food quality and higher food prices.  Thus, large bee populations are in everyone's best interest.  Anyone who grows or uses plant products is a stakeholder in bee conservation.

This bulletin is for anyone who wants to know how to make a property more bee-friendly.  The goal is to increase the number of bees foraging and nesting on one's property which will lead to improved pollination of row crops or garden crops.  A healthy bee population needs long-lasting nesting sites and plants that produce nectar and pollen during bee nesting season.  These facts are the foundation of any bee conservation program.

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Some Important Be Pollinators in the Southeast

Honey bees are the most important crop pollinator.  They form long-lived colonies and nest in hollow trees or beekeepers= hives.
Fig. 1
Honey Bees. These are the most well-known bee (Fig. 1).  They are social bees which means they live together in large colonies.  Honey bees thrive in man-made hives in which they can reach populations as high as 60,000 individuals.  The beekeeping industry is an important part of the U.S. agricultural economy.  The beekeeping industry in the Southeast produces honey and beeswax and provides crop pollination services.  A specialized branch of the industry, concentrated in south Georgia, raises bees and queens for sale to beekeepers around the world.  Honey bees are historically the most important crop pollinator.
A queen bumble bee.  These large, fuzzy bees nest in grass hollows or abandoned rodent nests.  Their colonies live for only one season.
Fig. 2


Bumble bees
. These are large, fuzzy bees (Fig. 2).  They are social like honey bees.  However, the life cycle begins with a solitary overwintered queen.  She emerges from hibernation in early spring and finds a nest site, usually a cavity in thick grass or an abandoned rodent nest and single-handedly forages for nectar and pollen.  She raises a batch of worker bumble bees who help her forage and care for more young.  Eventually the worker population increases enough that the queen can stay at the nest and concentrate on laying eggs.  The colony population peaks at a few hundred individuals.  In mid- to late-summer the colony stops rearing workers and begins rearing new queens and males.  New queens mate and overwinter to start the cycle over again.  Workers, males, and the old queen die at the end of summer.

The opening to the subterranean tunnel of a soil-nesting bee.  The bee is visible just inside the entrance.
Fig. 6

Soil-nesting bees. This group includes thousands of species.  Three important pollinating soil-nesters in the Southeast are polyester bees (Fig. 3), southeastern blueberry bees (Fig. 4), and squash bees (Fig. 5).  Polyester bees and southeastern blueberry bees pollinate blueberry, and squash bees pollinate cucurbit crops.  These bees are solitary.  This means individual females emerge in spring and, mate, forage, and singlehandedly rear the next generation of offspring.  Females dig simple tunnels in soil in which they lay their eggs and the immature bees develop and overwinter (Fig. 6).

Polyester bees are solitary bees that nest in tunnels in soil.  They pollinate many early spring crops.

Fig. 3

Southeastern blueberry bees are solitary soil nesters.  They are excellent pollinators of blueberry.  Notice the very long tongue that helps them work the tubular blueberry flowers.

Fig. 4

Squash bees, another solitary soil nester, pollinate squash, pumpkin, and gourd.  These bees often spend the night in squash flowers.  They are about the same size as a honey bee but have characteristic whitish stripes on the abdomen.

Fig. 5

 

Mason bees nest in pre-existing tunnels such as nail holes or abandoned beetle burrows.  They are called mason bees because they seal their tunnels with mud or chewed leaf material.
Fig. 7

Mason bees. These are solitary bees (Fig. 7) that nest in pre-existing tunnels such as old nail holes, beetle tunnels, or soda straws.  They are called mason bees because they seal their tunnels with mud or finely-chewed leaf material.  They are important pollinators of many early spring-blooming plants.

 

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Habitat Conservation


The information in this section can help one assess the conservation value of lands and identify steps for improving them for bees.  The immediate goal is to increase the density and species diversity of flowering plants and the density of good bee nesting sites.  In this section we will discuss the most important principles of bee nesting biology, then follow each principle with a practice one can use to put the knowledge to work.

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Principle 1

Bees thrive best in open, sunny habitats with an abundance and diversity of flowering food plants rather than in flower-poor, shaded woodlands [v].

  • Practice
    Sunny woodland edges, undisturbed and with plenty of flowering plants, are good candidate bee sanctuaries.  Wild bees need different types of nesting habitats.  Bumble bees need unmown grass whereas most soil nesters need partially bare, sun-exposed soil.  Mason bees need pre-existing beetle holes or nail holes.
    Fig. 8
    Focus your habitat conservation efforts on sunny, open undisturbed meadows, field margins, sun-drenched patches of bare soil, roadsides, ditch banks, and woodland edges (Fig. 8).  Undisturbed areas like these can increase the abundance of bee nesting sites and diversity of flowering plant species on a farm [vi].  A farm can have large areas of such idle land, and using it for a bee sanctuary costs next to nothing and involves mostly a willingness to leave it undisturbed for the long term.  "Undisturbed" means no draining, plowing, or compacting with heavy machinery.  Periodic mowing, however, is required (see Principle 3 below).

  • Practice
    Avoid heavily wooded areas for bee sanctuaries.  The only exception is those areas with nectar-producing understory and margin plants such as bramble, gallberry, and palmetto.  Certain tree species, for example red maple, sourwood, and tulip poplar, are good pollen or nectar sources, but even with these types of forest the bees are more likely to nest at the forest margins that have sun and a variety of nesting sites and flowering plants.
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Principle 2

The richness of plant and bee species increases with time in undisturbed fallow fields [vii].  As the diversity of flowering plants increases, so does the diversity of bee species.  A large diversity of bee species is good insurance for crop pollination.

  • Practice
    Plan bee sanctuaries for the long term.  In time you can expect increasing numbers of plant and bee species in these undisturbed sanctuaries.  But one catastrophic event, plowing for example, can undo years' worth of progress.
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Principle 3

The most effective bee sanctuaries are mid-successional plant communities with an abundance of herbaceous perennials and few or no invading trees [viii].

  • Practice
    Biannual mowing is advisable to keep a sanctuary from succeeding into shaded woodlands or scrub lands. It is best to mow in winter when it is less likely to destroy active bumble bee colonies.  A light mower is preferable to a heavy tractor-mounted implement that may crush nests of overwintering soil-nesting bees.
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Principle 4

Even managed pastures can be made more hospitable to bees [v].

  • Practice
    The older the pasture, the more likely it is to have suitable bee nest sites and numerous plant species.  This means it is best to keep pastures more-or-less permanent.  Temporary pastures, such as those grown in crop rotation, have very low plant diversity even though the cover crop (such as clover) may be a rich bee resource for one season.  It is important to not allow overgrazing because it promotes invasion of fast-growing grasses that crowd out nectar-yielding herbaceous plants.  Herbicides similarly can reduce the number of pasture plant species.  It is also important to not cut forage plants before they bloomCas commonly done for making hay or silageCbecause this makes the pasture useless to bees.
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Principle 5

Bees need nesting materials.

  • PracticeThis applies mostly to mason bees that need mud to seal their nests.  Make sure there is a source of mud near nest holes where mason bees are active.

Habitat Improvement with Installed Bee Pastures

Bee conservation can go beyond passive habitat  preservation to active habitat improvement by installing permanent bee pastures.  Bee pasture is a permanent planting of flowering annuals or perennials designed to attract bees over many weeks or months. The goal is improved bee nutrition to encourage high bee numbers, either by attracting them to the area, increasing the number nesting in the area, or by increasing their reproductive output.  Long-term payoff of perennial pastures may be good, especially since non-honey bees tend to nest near where they were reared the previous year [ix].

Candidate bee pasture plants should be rich in nectar and pollen, easy to grow, cost-effective, non-invasive, long-blooming, and not bloom at the same time as the crop and thus compete with it for pollinators.  Here are some principles and practices for bee pasture plantings.

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Principle 1

Bees reproduce better in habitats that have an uninterrupted season-long succession of bloom.  This is best illustrated with bumble bees.  The number of queens a colony can produce depends partly on the number of workers it can produce in the weeks leading up to the queen production period in late summer [x].  Producing workers requires energy, so a colony's queen output ultimately hinges on season-long availability of food.

  • Practice
    Most flowering and nectar production by plants in the Southeast is in early spring and autumn.  Mid summer is often a nectar dearth and a difficult time for bees.
    Fig. 9a

    One goal of a managed bee pasture is to introduce plants that bloom during the natural dearth times.

    Fig. 9b
    In planning a bee pasture, it is important to choose a collection of plants that will produce an unbroken succession of bloom throughout the season.  Local beekeepers, county extension agents, and horticulturists are good sources of information about the important bee plants in an area and their historic bloom times.  This information can help you identify dearth times in the natural bloom calendar.  Your county extension agent, horticulture specialist, or the Appendix at the back of this bulletin can help you select bee pasture plants that bloom during those dearth times (Fig. 9).  Avoid installing pasture plants that bloom at the same time as the crop or else you run the risk that bees may prefer the pasture flowers over the crop flowers.

Here is a seed blend of eleven annuals that provides long-blooming bee pasture for set-aside farmlands.  Although this list was developed in Germany [xi], these plants are available as seed in North America.

40% phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia)

3% red radish (Raphanus sativus)

25% buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)

3% cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)

7% white mustard (Sinapis alba)

3% mallow (Malva sylvestris)

6% coriander (Coriandrum sativum)

2% anethum (Anethum graveolens)

5% calendula (Calendula officinalis)

1% borage (Borago officinalis)

5% black cumin (Nigella sativa)


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Principle 2

Vitex is a good perennial mid-summer bloom that attracts many types of bees.
Fig. 10

Perennials are better bee pasture plants than annuals (Fig. 10).  Although some annuals provide quick and relatively abundant bee forage, perennial herbs and shrubs are superior bee forage plants and deserve special attention by bee conservationists [xii], [xiii].  Compared to annuals, perennials are generally richer nectar sources.  Because of their longevity, perennials provide bee populations a more-or-less dependable food source year after year and encourage repeated nesting in the area.  This partly explains why the number of bee and plant species increase together over time in undisturbed meadows.

  • Practice
    When possible, plant perennials for bee pasture.  Considering the repeated labor and inputs required for annuals, perennials are a cost-effective, low-maintenance choice for bee conservationists.
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Principle 3

Bee nesting and foraging activities center on flower-rich habitats.  Bumble bee queens prefer to nest in flower-rich meadows [xiv], and most bee species prefer to forage close to their nests [x].   The foraging range of non-honey bees is probably smaller than that of honey bees [v].

  • Practice
    Place bee pastures as near as possible to the crop of interest.  This increases the chance of bees nesting near to, and foraging on, the crop.

Bigger is Better

As conservationists think of bee sanctuaries and pastures, they need to think big.  The diversity of bee species is highest in large, continuously-connected areas of suitable habitat.  Unfortunately, farming and urbanization do the exact opposite break up habitats into small fragments or "islands."  When there are many edges to a species's natural habitat, the edges may increase invasion of competitors, parasites, and predators, decrease the species's dispersal ability, and increase chance of inbreeding.

Thus, bee sanctuaries and pastures should be as large as possible.  One large, connected bee sanctuary, ideally on a scale larger than that of an individual farm, is better than several small, disconnected sanctuaries.  One expert recommends that for a normally functioning agricultural landscape the area of land in cultivated fields or mowed meadows should not exceed 75 percent of the total area.  The remaining 25 percent should be left as bee sanctuary [vi].

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Bee Conservation and Plant Conservation

Altered natural habitats are a prime cause of species loss not only of bees but of native plants.  Plants whose habitats become fragmented are widely separated from each other and may have trouble attracting pollinators.  One can imagine the vicious cycle at work here: habitat fragmentation separates the plants from their pollinators; plant numbers decline for lack of pollinating bees; bee numbers decline for lack of food plants.

Some modern agricultural practices may also rob native plants of habitat and lure away their pollinators.  Large acreages of bee-attractive crops, such as canola, may lure all bees, native and exotic, away from native plants, depriving them of pollination and contributing further to their decline [xv].

Native bee conservation goes hand in hand with conservation of native plants that depend on them for pollination.  Without their pollinators, the colorful bee-pollinated plants that beautify our surroundings, control erosion, and increase our property values would decline with unknown effects on the wildlife that depends on them for food.  Thus, bee conservation is not just an issue for beekeepers and crop growers and home gardeners, although food production is by far the most important arena.  It is at the very center of plant production and conservation, and all who use and enjoy plant products are stakeholders.

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Appendix

Below is an incomplete list of wild and commercially-available plants that provide prolonged-blooming bee pasture in the Southeast.  It is important for bees, especially bumble bees, to have an unbroken succession of bloom all season to build up their local populations.  If you want to encourage large bee populations, consider growing an assembly of plants from this list so that bloom is more or less continuous.  It is important to choose bee pasture plants that are rich in nectar and pollen, easy to grow, cost-effective, non-invasive, long-blooming, and do not bloom at the same time as the crop.  Plants in the table are listed in chronological order of their average first month of bloom.

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Plants for prolonged-blooming bee pasture in the Southeast [xvi], [xvii], [xviii], [xix], [xx], [xxi]

Common Name

Scientific Name

Type

Availability

Resource (nectar orpollen)

Bloom Dates

Cajeput (Tea Tree)

Melaleuca quinquenervia

tree

feral

n,p

much of the year

Chickweed

Stellaria spp.

ann. or per. herb

feral

n,p

much of the year

Cucumber

Cucumis sativa

ann. herb

cultivated

n,p

much of the year

Pumpkin

Cucurbita spp.

ann.

cultivated

n,p

much of the year

Alder

Alnus spp.

tree

feral

p

January-June

Blueberry

Vaccinium spp.

shrub

cultivated, feral

n,p

January-June

Maple

Acer spp.

tree

feral

n,p

January-May

Cantaloupe

Cucumis melo

ann. herb

cultivated

n,p

February-August

Citrus

Citrus spp.

tree

cultivated

n,p

February-May

Dandelion

Taraxacum spp.

bien. or per. herb

feral

n,p

February-September

Dead Nettle (Henbit)

Lamium spp.

ann. or per. herb

feral, ornamental, sometimes invasive

p

February-October

Elm

Ulmus spp.

tree

feral

n,p

February-April

Groundsel

Senecio spp.

ann. or per. herb, shrub

feral, ornamental

n,p

February-May

Hawthorn

Crataegus spp.

shrub, tree

feral

n,p

February-June

Peach

Prunus persica

tree

cultivated

n,p

February-April

Pine

Pinus spp.

tree

cultivated, feral

p

February-April

Skunk Cabbage (Polecat Weed)

Symplocarpus foetidus

per. herb

feral, ornamental

p

February-April

Titi (Spring Titi)

Cliftonia spp.

shrub

feral

n,p

February-April

Willow

Salix spp.

tree

feral

n,p

February-June

Apple

Malus spp.

tree

cultivated

n,p

March-May

Ash

Fraxinus spp.

tree

feral

p

March-May

Blackberry

Rubus spp.

shrub

cultivated, feral

n,p

March-June

Black Locust

Robinia pseudoacacia

tree

feral

n,p

March-June

Cherry (cultivated and uncultivated)

Prunus spp.

tree, shrub

cultivated, feral

n,p

March-May

Cottonwood

Populus spp.

tree

feral

p

March-May

Flowering Dogwood

Cornus florida

tree

feral

n,p

March-April

Gallberry

Ilex glabra

shrub

feral

n,p

March-June

Mustard

Brassica spp.

ann. or bien. herb

feral

n,p

March-September

Oak

Quercus spp.

tree

feral

p

March-May

Persimmon

Diospyros virginiana

tree

cultivated, feral

n,p

March-June

Plum (cultivated)

Prunus spp.

tree

cultivated

n,p

March-April

Rape (Canola)

Brassica napus

ann. herb.

cultivated oilseed

n,p

March-May

Rattan Vine

Berchemia scandens

shrub

feral

.

March-June

Redbud

Cercis spp.

shrub, tree

feral, ornamental

n,p

March-May

Tupelo

Nyssa spp.

tree

feral

n,p

March-June

Vervain

Verbena spp.

ann. or per. herb

feral, ornamental

n,p

March-October

Alsike Clover

Trifolium hybridum

per. herb

cultivated forage

n,p

April-September

Bindweed

Convolvulus spp.

ann. or per. herb

feral, ornamental, sometimes invasive

n,p

April-September

Buckeye

Aesculus spp.

shrub, tree

feral

n,p

April-May

Buckthorn

Rhamnus spp.

shrub, tree

feral, ornamental

n,p

April-June

Catclaw

Acacia greggii

shrub, tree

feral

n,p

April-July

Coneflower

Rudbeckia spp.

ann., bien, or per. herb

feral, ornamental

n,p

April-September

Corn

Zea maize

ann.

cultivated

p

April-September

Crimson Clover

Trifolium incarnatum

ann. herb

cultivated forage

n,p

April-June

Elderberry

Sambucus spp.

shrub, tree

feral, ornamental

n,p

April-July

Holly

Ilex spp.

shrub, tree

feral, ornamental

n,p

April-June

Honey Locust

Gleditsia triacanthos

tree

feral

n,p

April-June

Honeysuckle

Lonicera spp.

shrub

feral

n,p

April-August

Horsemint (Bee Balm)

Monarda spp.

ann. or per. herb

feral, ornamental

n,p

April-October

Huckleberry

Gaylussacia spp.

shrub

feral

n,p

April-June

Johnson Grass

Sorghum halepense

per.

cultivated forage, feral, sometimes noxious

.

April-November

Marigold

Gaillardia pulchella

ann.

feral, ornamental

n,p

April-October

Mesquite

Prosopsis glandulosa

shrub, tree

feral

n,p

April-June

Pear

Pyrus spp.

tree

cultivated, ornamental

n,p

April-May

Pepper Vine

Ampelopsis spp.

vine, shrub

feral

n,p

April-August

Persian Clover

Trifolium resupinatum

ann. herb

.

n,p

April-September

Privet

Ligustrum spp.

shrub

feral, ornamental

n,p

April-July

Red Clover

Trifolium pratense

short-lived per.

cultivated forage

n,p

April-September

Sage

Salvia spp.

ann. or per. herb, shrub

ornamental

n,p

April-May

Sweet Clover (White, Yellow)

Melilotus spp.

bien. herb

cultivated forage

n,p

April-October

Thistles

Cirsium spp.

ann., bien., or per. herb

feral

n,p

April-October

Tickseed

Coreopsis lanceolata

per. herb

feral

n

April-June

Titi (Summer Titi)

Cyrilla racemiflora

shrub

feral

n,p

April-July

Tulip Poplar

Liriodendron tulipifera

tree

feral

n,p

April-June

Vetch

Vicia spp.

ann. or bien. herb

cultivated forage

n,p

April-September

White Clover (White Dutch, Ladino)

Trifolium repens

per.

cultivated forage

n,p

April-October

Yellow Rocket

Barbarea vulgaris

bien. or per. herb

feral, sometimes noxious

n,p

April-June

Alfalfa

Medicago sativa

per. herb

cultivated forage

n,p

May-October

American Beautyberry (French Mulberry)

Callicarpa americana

shrub

feral, ornamental

n

May-June

Aster

Aster spp.

per. herb

feral

n,p

May-November

Bermuda Grass

Cynodon dactylon

per. grass

cultivated forage

.

May-November

Bitterweed

Helenium amarum

ann.

feral

n,p

May-November

Carpet Grass

Phyla nodiflora

per. herb

feral, groundcover

n

May-frost

Catalpa (Catawba)

Catalpa spp.

tree

feral

n,p

May-June

Chinese Tallow Tree

Sapium sebiferum

tree

ornamental

n

May-June

Grape

Vitis spp.

per. vine

cultivated

n,p

May-July

Palmetto (Cabbage Palm)

Sabal spp.

palm

feral

n,p

May-July

Palmetto (Saw Palmetto)

Serenoa repens

palm

feral

n,p

May-July

Prickly Pear

Opuntia spp.

cacti, tree-like

feral, ornamental

n,p

May-June

Raspberry

Rubus spp.

shrub

feral

n,p

May-June

Smartweed

Polygonum spp.

ann. or per. herb

cultivated, feral, ornamental

n,p

May-November

Sorghum

Sorghum bicolor

ann.

cultivated

p

May-October

Sourwood

Oxydendrum arboreum

tree

feral, ornamental

n,p

May-July

Spanish Needles

Bidens spp.

ann. or per. herb

feral, ornamental

n,p

May-November

Sumac

Rhus spp.

shrub, tree

feral

n,p

May-September

Virginia Creeper

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

vine

feral, ornamental

n,p

May-August

Watermelon

Citrullus lanatus

ann.

cultivated

n,p

May-August

Anise Hyssop

Agastache spp.

per. herb

feral, ornamental

n,p

June-September

Balloon Vine

Cardiospermum halicacabum

ann. or bien. vine

feral, ornamental

.

June-August

Basswood

Tilia spp.

tree

feral

n,p

June-July

Blue Vine

Cynanchum laeve

per. herb

feral

n,p

June-September

Boneset (Joe-Pye Weed)

Eupatorium spp.

per. herb, shrub

feral, ornamental

n,p

June-November

Buckwheat

Fagopyrum esculentum

herb

cultivated

n,p

June-frost

Buttonbush

Cephalanthus spp.

shrub, tree

feral

n,p

June-September

Clethra (Sweet Pepperbush)

Clethra alnifolia

shrub

feral

n,p

June-September

Cotton

Gossypium spp.

ann. herb

cultivated

n,p

June-September

Cowpea

Vigna unguiculata

ann. herb

cultivated

n,p

June-September

Cranberry

Vaccinium macrocarpon

evergreen

cultivated, feral

n,p

June-July

Ironweed

Vernonia spp.

per. herb, shrub, tree

feral, ornamental

n,p

June-October

Lespedeza (Bush Clover)

Lespedeza spp.

per. herb, shrub

feral, ornamental

n,p

June-October

Lima Bean

Phaseolus lunatus

herb

cultivated

n,p

June-July

Loosestrife (Purple Loosestrife)

Lythrum salicaria

per. herb

cultivated, feral

n,p

June-September

Mexican Clover

Richardia scabra

ann. herb

cultivated, feral

n

June-frost

Milkweed

Asclepias spp.

per. herb

feral

n

June-August

Mint

Mentha spp.

per. herb

cultivated, feral, ornamental

n

June-September

Partridge Pea

Cassia fasciculata

ann. herb

feral

n,p

June-October

Prickly Ash

Aralia spinosa

shrub, tree

feral

n

June-August

Star Thistle

Centaurea spp.

ann., bien., or per. herb

feral, ornamental

n,p

June-October

Sunflower

Helianthus spp.

ann. or per. herb

cultivated ornamental and oilseed, feral

n,p

June-November

Vitex (Chaste Tree)

Vitex spp.

shrub, tree

ornamental

n,p

June-July

Broomweed

Gutierrezia texana

per. herb

feral

.

July-October

Goldenrod

Solidago spp.

per. herb

feral

n,p

July-November

Ragweed

Ambrosia spp.

herb

feral, often noxious

p

July-October

Snowvine

Mikania scandens

per. vine

feral

n,p

July-frost

Soybean

Glycine max

ann. herb

cultivated

n,p

July-October

Woodbine

Clematis virginiana

per. herb

feral, ornamental

n,p

July-September

Brazilian Pepper Tree

Schinus terebinthifolius

shrub, tree

feral, ornamental, sometimes noxious

.

August-October

Crown-beard

Verbesina spp.

ann. or per. herb, shrub, tree

feral

n,p

August-October

Matchweed (Snakeweed)

Gutierrezia  sarothrae

per. herb

feral

n,p

August-October

Prairie clover

Dalea spp.

herb, shrub

feral

n,p

September-October

Baccharis (Groundsel)

Baccharis spp.

shrub

feral, ornamental

n,p

October-November

Strawberry

Fragaria x ananassa

per. herb

cultivated,feral

n,p

December-May


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References

i. Robinson, W.S., R. Nowogrodzki, & R.A. Morse. 1989. American Bee Journal 129: 411-423, 477-487

ii. Southwick, E.E. & L. Southwick, Jr. 1992. Journal of Economic Entomology 85: 621-633

iii. Kraus, B. & R.E. Page. 1995. Environmental Entomology 24: 1473-148

iv. Loper, G.M. 1995. American Bee Journal 135: 823-824

v. Osborne, J.L., I.H. Williams, & S.A. Corbet. 1991. Bee World 72: 99-116

vi. Banaszak, J. 1992. Agricultural Ecosystems and the Environment 40: 179-192

vii. Gathmann, A., H.-J. Greiler, & T. Tscharntke. 1994. Oecologia 98: 8-14

viii. Dramstad, W. & G. Fry. 1995. Agricultural Ecosystems and the Environment 53: 123-135

ix. Butler, C.G. 1965. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (A) 40: 77-80

x. Heinrich, B. 1979. Bumblebee economics.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts

xi. Bauer, M. & W. Engels. 1992. Apidologie 23: 340-342

xii. Parrish, J.A.D. & F.A. Bazzaz. 1979. Ecology 60: 597-610

xiii. Fussell, M. & S.A. Corbet. 1992. Journal of Applied Ecology 29: 451-465

xiv. Bowers, M.A. 1985. Ecology 66: 914-927

xv. Williams, I.H., S.A. Corbet, & J.L. Osborne. 1991. Bee World 72: 170-180

xvi. Ayers, G.S., & J.R. Harman. 1992. In The hive and the honey bee (J.M. Graham, ed.), Dadant & Sons, Hamilton, Illinois

xvii. Cane, J.H. 1993. In Proceedings of the Southeast Blueberry Conference. Tifton, Georgia

xviii. Delaplane, K.S. 1993. Honey bees and beekeeping.  University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin 1045

xix. Hortus Third. 1976. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York

xx. Krewer, G.W., K.S. Delaplane, & P.A. Thomas. 1996. HortScience 31: 750

xxi. Mitchell, T.B. 1962. Bees of the eastern United States.  North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 15

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